A certificate of origin is one of the basic documents for various goods in the process of import and export customs clearance. It is the basis for confirming the origin and tariff treatment of a product.
As an importer, you must clearly understand this terminology. This guide will give you a detailed and complete explanation of the Certificate of Origin.
What is a certificate of origin?
A certificate of origin is a document used to determine the “nationality” of goods in international trade.
It is proof that export goods enjoy tariff reduction in the importing country or region, and enjoy the reputation of “paper gold” in international trade.
What is the use of Certificate of Origin?
A certificate of origin is a legal document to prove the origin of goods. Figuratively speaking, the certificate of origin is the “passport” of goods.
1. Certificate of origin is an effective certificate for handing over goods, settling payment, claiming compensation, clearing and accepting in the importing country, collecting customs duty, etc. in trade relations.
2. It is an important document for exporting countries to enjoy quota treatment, importing countries to implement differential tariff treatment and country-specific trade policies, trade statistics, quantity restrictions and control of imports from specific countries, etc. This has specific legal effects and economic utility.
3. If the target country of export goods is a WTO member, the general certificate of origin can enjoy the most-favored-nation treatment of the target country.
If the target country of export goods is a GSP preference country or a member of various regional cooperation arrangements joined by China.
The certificate of origin of the corresponding format can enjoy greater preferences of the target country on the basis of the most-favored-nation treatment, until duty-free.
What are the types of certificates of origin?
When you import from China, you should know what types of certificates of origin you can get from China.
In China, it is mainly divided into three types: non-preferential certificate of origin, preferential certificate of origin, and a special certificate of origin.
1. Ordinary Certificate of Origin
It is also known as a non-preferential certificate of origin, abbreviated as C/O or CO. This certificate is usually issued for exports to countries in the Middle East, Africa, Southeast Asia, Central, and South America, etc.
2. Preferential Certificate of Origin
Preferential certificates of origin include GSP treatment granted to China by most developed countries (FORM A certificate).
As well as bilateral or multi-variable preferential trade agreements signed between China and some countries or regions (FORM B certificate, FORM E certificate, FORM F certificate, FORM P certificate, FORM N certificate, FORM X certificate, etc.).
Preferential certificates of origin are generally issued by the entry-exit inspection and quarantine agencies around the world.
1) GSP Certificate of Origin (FORM A Certificate)
FORM A certificate can be issued by the following countries.
Britain, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, Ireland, Denmark, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Austria, Sweden, Finland, Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia.
Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Cyprus, Malta, Bulgaria, Romania, Switzerland, Liechtenstein Norway, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine Kazakhstan, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Turkey, a total of 39, excluding the United States.
2) Certificate of Origin of Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement (FORM B Certificate)
The countries that can issue FORM B certificates are. China, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Laos, and Korea (APTA member countries).
3) China-ASEAN Free Trade Area Certificate of Origin (FORM E Certificate)
The countries that can issue FORM E certificates are. China, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Philippines, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore (ASEAN member countries).
4) China – Pakistan Free Trade Area Certificate of Origin (FORM P Certificate)
When Chinese products are exported to Pakistan, the Chinese exporter applies to the entry-exit inspection and quarantine agency for issuance of FORM P certificate, and Pakistan gives preferential tariff treatment to the goods on FORM P certificate.
When Pakistani products are exported to China, the Pakistani exporter applies to the relevant Pakistani authorities for the issuance of the FORM P certificate.
And China gives preferential tariff treatment to the goods on the FORM P certificate. This is reciprocal (fundamentally different from the unilateral granting of preferences under FROM A).
The following FORM F, FORM N, FORM X, and FORM S certificates are all reciprocal preferential certificates of origin.
5) China-Chile Free Trade Area Certificate of Origin (FORM F Certificate)
6) China-New Zealand Free Trade Area Certificate of Origin (FORM N Certificate)
7) China-Singapore Free Trade Area Preferential Certificate of Origin (FORM X Certificate)
8) China-Switzerland Free Trade Agreement Certificate of Origin (FORM S Certificate)
9) China-Peru Free Trade Area Preferential Certificate of Origin (China-Peru FTA Certificate)
10) China-Costa Rica FTA Preferential Certificate of Origin (FORM L Certificate)
11) China-Korea FTA Certificate of Origin (FORM K Certificate)
3. Special Certificate of Origin
A Special Certificate of Origin is a certificate of origin specifically for special products of some special industries, such as agricultural products, wine, tobacco, cheese products, rough diamonds, etc.
Which are generated according to the special needs of import and export supervision.
The special products of these special industries should conform to certain rules of origin in order to be legally imported and exported.
The visa of special certificate of origin is based on the bilateral or multilateral agreements signed between the Chinese government and foreign governments.
Who can issue the certificate of origin in China?
In China, the agencies that can issue certificates of origin are Customs and CCPIT; other agencies are not authorized to issue them.
Customs can issue all kinds of certificates of origin – mainly all kinds of preferential certificates of origin; CCPIT mainly issues non-preferential general certificates of origin.